Bath and Millhaven Institutions are located outside of Kingston, about a 30 minute drive west. A scenic drive through the countryside and along Lake Ontario, this prison is tucked away on a hill off of Route 33 which is lined with residential neighborhoods. The approach to the campus is more reminiscent of a suburban shopping center than a two prisons housing 900+/-offenders of various security levels. Beginning with Bath Institution, I spent the entire day at both facilities with Mr. Paul Cybulski who gave me quite an extensive tour, introducing me to various departments where I had the opportunity to learn about the operations of the facilities. I was not allowed to take photographs inside of these facilities for both security and offender privacy reasons, so I relied on quick sketching to document my experience.
To give an overall description of the close proximity and layout of the campuses, a quick GoogleEarth image tells the story of where the facilities are located and the amount of structures that make up the prisons. Bath Institution currently houses 530 medium security male offenders and Millhaven has 400 maximum security male offenders. These facilities are run by the Correctional Services Canada as opposed to territorial jurisdiction (similar to the U.S. system of federal vs. state). It is a common theme at Bath to have offenders live communally in the various forms of apartment style housing. Collectively, they must grocery shop, prepare food, and maintain the cleanliness of their living quarters. Mr. Cybulski mentioned that there is no violence in the Bath facility and he believes it is because the offenders have more freedoms (circulation throughout the campus, choice of foods and the ability to work). Inmates must apply to come to this facility and there is a waiting list.
When discussing the architecture and design of the buildings inside of the perimeter fence, it is common to the other facilities in Canada I visited that they are out-of-date. There is not a demand for new prisons to be built because the low/steady population, but the existing structures need to be updated/renovated. One main area where this was apparent was in the temporary housing trailers which were meant to last 3-5 years but are still in use after 18 years. A guard on duty at the trailer residences explained that offenders cannot be “double bunked” because the structure would not be able to support the added weight.
As is common to most prisons in Ontario, there is an aboriginal garden which can only be entered by aboriginal offenders. This is where rituals and gatherings are held to maintain the traditions of aboriginal inmates. If you are not aboriginal, you must be invited to enter and this includes guards and staff as well (unless there is an emergency).
Touring Millhaven Institution was the second part of the day. This is a maximum security men’s facility equipped with a gallery where guards can walk through hidden halls above the offender communal spaces so they can look down on the activity below. I was able to walk through this dark, secret corridor, and experience the routine activity of a prison guard. It was in this facility as well that I experienced my first solitary confinement area, something which Canada is phasing out of their correctional practices.
Today I visited the currently operating institution of Collins Bay located in the city limits of Kingston, Ontario. Joining me again on this tour are Maria and Yomna from the CSC who have not previously toured this institution- this is a learning experience for all of us. A federally owned prison, Collins Bay Institution was built in 1930 and after the closing of Kingston Penitentiary, it became the oldest operating facility in Ontario. This multi-security level facility houses minimum, medium, and maximum security level inmates and currently sits slightly below the rated capacity of 600+ male offenders.
Security is maintained by this perimeter wall seen below with guard watchtowers. Similar to ideas used in the Scandinavian countries, there is maximum security on the outside of the prison with various levels of freedoms inside this wall.
Modern additions for housing were added in 2006 inside of this secure perimeter in an apartment style for offenders who have proven they can co-habitat peacefully with other inmates in these individually operated units. Shown below are the new medium security level units with the rated capacity for 96 offenders but which only hold 74 currently because they are under capacity.
The tour of Collins Bay Institution was extremely in depth-I was granted guided access to any area of the prison I requested to see. The staff was very accommodating and open to sharing experiences and ideas which may guide my research to a better prison design. We all share the common goal of improving the conditions and outcomes of prisons by treating the incarcerated offenders humanely.
The second of two decommissioned prisons I will visit in Ontario, Kingston Penitentiary is the oldest prison in Canada. Formerly a maximum security prison, this institution closed it’s doors in 2016. When it opened in 1835, it housed offending men, women, and children until 1935 when a separate facility was constructed for women nearby (the Kingston Women’s Prison).
When organizing this trip to Canada, I had been in contact with Erik Gaudreault, Senior Project Officer, Intergovernmental Relations who helped me to schedule each institutional tour. Erik put me in contact with the curator of the CSC Museum who graciously offered to give me a private tour of Kingston Penitentiary before it opened to the public for tours in the summer months. Yomna Anani and Maria Cinquino from the CSC were also available to join on this tour and I believe we all learned a great deal from this behind the scenes exposure to the history of Kingston Penitentiary.
In the attic of the prison, we could see how the cells were configured prior to a renovation which widened them from 27″ wide to double that in size.
The institution’s workshop is a highlight of the prison tour boasting a grand staircase, skylight, and intricate stonework.
In my meeting with CSC Design Coordinators Yomna Anani and Maria Cinquino, they informed me that the former Kingston Women’s Prison was located a short walk from the Regional Headquarters. While in operation, this was a multi-level security institution, as are all of the women’s facilities in Canada. Though I was unable to go inside, I was able to walk around the building and observe the architectural style, materials, and security elements. The building currently stands vacant and is owned by Queen’s University in Kingston.
The Kingston Women’s Prison closed on July 6, 2000 and the offenders were relocated to the five institutions for women located across Canada; Nova Institution for Women in Truro, Nova Scotia; Joliette Institution in Joliette, Quebec; Grand Valley Institution for Women in Kitchener, Ontario; Edmonton Institution for Women in Edmonton, Alberta; and the Okimaw Ochi Healing Lodge, in Maple Creek, Saskatchewan.
To kick off my prison tour here in Ontario, Canada, I met with two Design Coordinators from the Correctional Service Canada (CSC), Yomna Anani and Maria Cinquino. Though they work out of the Ottawa office, they were kind enough to travel here to Kingston to meet with me at the Regional Headquarters and share a great deal of information regarding design practices for the correctional system, both past ideas and how they want to design their future prisons to promote a normative lifestyle.
CSC works on a transitional system; it is preferred that offenders begin their sentences in higher security facilities and gradually move to minimum security accommodations. This idea is shared with the Scandinavian countries I previously visited over the summer of 2017 meant to transition the inmates into society without the burden of reintegration practices upon release.
When discussing where the CSC prefers to locate their prisons, Yomna informed me that they have no plans to construct new prisons as they do not currently have a need and they are focusing their efforts on updating their existing institutions to meet the new goals of corrections in Canada.